The reason why the relationship between the Chilean state and the Mapuche people of more than 1,700,000 people is particularly complex is that, unlike what happens with other peoples, their rule was not during colonial times, but their conquest was the work of the independent Chilean state. This annexed its territory in the mid-19th century. Likewise, throughout Chile's history, belonging to primitive peoples, particularly the Mapuche, has been associated with a series of marginalization and exclusion.
As a result, according to the Inter-American Development Bank, the multidimensional poverty rate for the non-indigenous population reaches 20.9 percent, while the multidimensional poverty rate for the indigenous population reaches 30.8 percent. Furthermore, the Chilean Fax Number List upper class is characterized by their predominance of white ancestry, while people of indigenous ancestry find themselves systematically marginalized by the most prestigious and highest-paying occupations. This is reflected in the fact that the most common surnames among doctors, lawyers and engineers are of Castilian, Basque, English, French, Italian and German descent, while indigenous people are scarce or marginalized. This exclusion has a long and complex history.
536,000 hectares, which leaves the vast majority of people without land. The lands of the Mapuche were vital to the economic sustenance of this people, as agriculture has historically been the central axis of their productive activities. In addition to this historic usurpation, an extractive industry has developed over the past 30 years, which has further impoverished the lives of communities. This is the case with forestry and salmon companies that occupy their territories and marine resources. Two important milestones in this process were the installation of the Ralco Dam in 1993, which flooded the ancestral lands of Mapuche, and the 1997 installation of three.